Advertising agencies come in all shapes and sizes. Some are small boutique shops that have just a few people. Others are giants that employ thousands of people in offices all around the world.
But, however large or small the agency, there is a basic structure that most advertising agencies stick to. In the smaller agencies, some people will perform more than one role. One person my actually be the entire department. But the fundamentals are the same, and it's because this model was born out of necessity and it works.
There are SIX major departments in any advertising agency. These can be split into other sub-departments, or given various creative names, but the skeleton is the same.
These departments are:
- Account Service
- Account Planning
- Finance & Accounts
- Media Buying
Larger agencies may also separate out the following departments:
- Human Resources & Facilities
- Web development
Let's take a look at the breakdown of those six major departments.
The account service department comprises account executives, account managers and account directors, and is responsible for liaising with the agency's many clients. This department is the link between the many departments within the agency, and the clients who pay the bills. In the past they were referred to as "the suits," and there have been many battles between the account services department and the creative department. But as most creatives know, a good account services team is essential to a good advertising campaign. A solid creative brief is one of the main duties of account services.
This department combines research with strategic thinking. Often a mix of researchers and account managers, the account planning department provides consumer insights, strategic direction, research, focus groups and assists helps keep advertising campaigns on target and on brand. Chris Cowpe described account planning as "…the discipline that brings the consumer into the process of developing advertising. To be truly effective, advertising must be both distinctive and relevant, and planning helps on both counts."
This is the engine of any advertising agency. It's the lifeblood of the business, because the creative department is responsible for the product. And an ad agency is only as good as the ads the creative department puts out. The roles within the creative department are many and varied, and usually include:
- Art Directors
- Production Artists
- Web Designers
- Associate Creative Directors
- Creative Director(s)
In many agencies, copywriters and art directors are paired up, working as teams. They will also bring in the talents of other designers and production artists as and when the job requires it. Sometimes, traffic is handled by a position within the creative department, although that is usually part of the production department. Everyone within creative services reports to the Creative Director. It is his or her role to steer the creative product, making sure it is on brand, on brief and on time.
Finance & Accounts
Money. At the end of the day, that's what ad agencies want. And it's what their clients want, too. At the center of all the money coming into, and going out of, the agency is the finance and accounts department. This department is responsible for handling payment of salaries, benefits, vendor costs, travel, day-to-day business costs and everything else you'd expect from doing business. It's been said that approximately 70% of an ad agency's income pays salary and benefits to employees. However, this figure varies depending on the size and success of the agency in question.
It is the function of the media buying department to procure the advertising time and/or space required for a successful advertising campaign. This includes TV and radio time, outdoor (billboards, posters, guerrilla), magazine and newspaper insertions, internet banners and takeovers, and, well, anywhere else an ad can be placed for a fee. This usually involves close collaboration with the creative department who came up with the initial ideas, as well as the client and the kind of exposure they want.This department is usually steered by a media director.
Ideas are just ideas until they're made real. This is the job of the production department. During the creative process, the production department will be consulted to talk about the feasibility of executing certain ideas. Once the ad is sold to the client, the creative and account teams will collaborate with production to get the campaign produced on budget. This can be anything from getting original photography or illustration produced, working with printers, hiring typographers and TV directors, and a myriad of other disciplines needed to get an ad campaign published. Production also works closely with the media department, who will supply the specs and deadlines for the jobs.
In small to mid-sized agencies, traffic is also a part of the production department. It is the job of traffic to get each and every job through the various stages of account management, creative development, media buying and production in a set timeframe. Traffic will also ensure that work flows through the agency smoothly, preventing jams that may overwhelm creative teams and lead to very long hours, missed deadlines and problematic client relationships. Traffic keeps the agency's heart beating.